SBV Journal of Basic, Clinical and Applied Health Science

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 1 ( January-March, 2019 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Yoga training enhances auditory and visual reaction time in children with autism spectrum disorder: A case - control study

R Eswari, AB Bhavanani, GS Prathima, A Sanguida

Keywords : central neuronal processing, quality of life, social skills,Reaction time

Citation Information : Eswari R, Bhavanani A, Prathima G, Sanguida A. Yoga training enhances auditory and visual reaction time in children with autism spectrum disorder: A case - control study. 2019; 2 (1):8-13.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02103

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-03-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Background and Objective: Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder leading to multiple problems including academic difficulties and impaired skills. Information processing is abnormal in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their central nervous system (CNS) is either over or under aroused. Reaction time (RT) is a useful marker to study the ability of CNS. This study planned to investigate the changes in RT before and after 12 weeks of yoga training Material and Methods: 72 ASD children were divided equally into control group (Group I) who did not undergo yoga training and yoga group (Group II) who received 60 minutes\' yoga training, five days a week, for 12 weeks. Components of yoga protocol included jathis, kriyas, asanas, pranayamas and yogic relaxation. Auditory RT (ART) and Visual RT (VRT) were recorded before and after 12 weeks\' yoga training using RT apparatus. Data was assessed for normality using GraphPad InStat version 3.06 for Windows 95. Wilcoxon matched?pairs signed?ranks test was used for intragroup comparison and Mann-Whitney test for intergroup comparison. P <0.05 was accepted as indicating significance. Results: Intra-group comparisons showed a highly significant increase in ART in group I (p < 0.001) whereas both ART and VRT decreased significantly in group II (p < 0.001) with yoga training. Intergroup comparisons showed highly significant differences in ART and VRT values (P < 0.0001). Delta % changes were also highly significant for both ART and VRT (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Yoga training may be utilized to reduce dependency on others and enhance learning capabilities and social skills in ASD children.


PDF Share
  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). 4th ed. Text revision. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association; 2000. p.78
  2. Ramanathan M, Bhavanani AB. Addressing autism spectrum disorder through yoga as a complementary therapy. J Basic Clin Appl Health Sci. 2018;2:3-7.
  3. Radhakrishna S, Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR. Integrated approach to yoga therapy and autism spectrum disorders. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2010;1:120-4.
  4. Barnes PM, Bloom B, Nahin RL. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007. Natl Health Stat Report. 2008;12:1-23.
  5. Steiner NJ, Sidhu TK, Pop PG, Frenette EC, Perrin EC. Yoga in an urban school for children with emotional and behavioral disorders: a feasibility study. J Child Fam Stud 2013; 22:815- 26.
  6. Kimbrough S, Balkin R, Rancich A. The effect of inverted yoga positions on short- term memory. The Online Journal of Sport Psychology 2007;9:34-42.
  7. Diamond A, Lee K. Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4-12 years Old. Science 2011;19:959 – 64.
  8. Hanji CV, Venkatesh G. To study the effect of Yoga Training on auditory and visual reaction time. J Int Med Dent 2014;1:90-92.
  9. Bhavanani AB, Ramanathan M, Harichandrakumar KT. Immediate effect of mukha bhastrika (a bellows type pranayama) on reaction time in mentally challenged adolescents. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2012;56:174-80.
  10. Guess D, Carr E. Emergence and maintenance of stereotypy and selfinjury. Am J Ment Retard. 1991;96:299-319; discussion 321-44.
  11. Schneck CM. The efficacy of a sensorimotor treatment approach by occupational therapists. Autism: A sensorimotor approach to management. In: Huebner RA, editor. Austin: PRO-ED INC; 2000. p.139-78.
  12. Ferraro FR. No evidence of reaction time slowing in autism spectrum disorder. Autism. 2016;20:116-22.
  13. Moradi A, Esmaeilzadeh S. Simple reaction time and obesity in children: whether there is a relationship? Environ Health Prev Med. 2017;22:2
  14. Goldeberg L. Creative relaxation a yoga based program for regular and exceptional student education. Int J Yoga Ther. 2004;14:67-78.
  15. Streeter CC, Gerbarg PL, Saper RB, Ciraulo DA, Brown RP. Effects of yoga on the autonomic nervous system, gamma-aminobutyricacid, and allostasis in epilepsy, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Med Hypotheses. 2012;78:571-9.
  16. Bhavanani AB, Ramanathan M, Balaji R, Pushpa D. Immediate effects of Suryanamaskar on reaction time and heart rate in female volunteers. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;57:199-204.
  17. Bhavanani AB, Ramanathan M, Balaji R, Pushpa D. Differential effects of uninostril and alternate nostril pranayamas on cardiovascular parameters and reaction time. Int J Yoga. 2014;7:60-5.
  18. Bhavanani AB, Ramanathan M, Madanmohan. Immediate effect of alternate nostril breathing on cardiovascular parameters and reaction time. Int Interdisciplinary Res J. 2014; 4; (Special Issue): 297-302.
  19. Ramanathan M, Bhavanani AB. Immediate effect of chandra and suryanadi pranayamas on cardiovascular parameters and reaction time in a geriatric population. Int J Physiol.2014;2:59-63.
  20. Bhavanani AB, Ramanathan M, Dayanidy G, Madanmohan Trakroo, Renuka K. A comparative study of the differential effects of short term asana and pranayama training on reaction time. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2017;7:80-3.
  21. Etnyre B, Kinugasa T. Post-contraction influences on reaction time (motor control and learning). Res Q Exerc Sport 2002;73:271– 81.
  22. Penn HE. Neurobiological correlates of autism: a review of recent research. Child Neuropsychol. 2006;12:57-79.
  23. Arambula P, Peper E, Kawakami M, Gibney KH. The physiological correlates of Kundalini Yoga meditation: a study of a yoga master. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2001;26:147-53.
  24. Pal R, Singh SN, Chatterjee A, Saha M. Age-related changes in cardiovascular system, autonomic functions, and levels of BDNF of healthy active males: role of yogic practice. Age (Dordr). 2014;36:9683.
  25. Herrero D, Crocetta TB, Massetti T, de Moraes IAP, Trevizan IL, Guarnieri R, et al. Total reaction time performance of individuals with autism after a virtual reality task. Int J Neurorehabil. 2015; 2:189.
  26. Gepner B, Féron F. Autism: a world changing too fast for a mis-wired brain? Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2009;33:1227-42.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.