Outcome-based education and competency-based education are two entities in medical or dental education where much is spoken about in the last few years. Very few institutions have taken this seriously and moved ahead to improve the standards of educations with respect to relevance and multidimensional training of the undergraduates and postgraduates. In the Indian scenario in the field of dentistry, we can observe the lack of impetus from the faculty to take up this and enhance the learning quality amongst the trainees. In this paper, the importance of such time-tested training strategy is stressed upon with the experiences of the author along with evidence from literature.
Kalkwarf KL, Haden NK, Valachovic RW. ADEA Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education. J Dental Edu 2005;69:1085–1087.
Harden RM. Outcome-Based Education the Future is Today (Commentary). Med Teach 2007;29:265–269. DOI: 10.1080/01421590701729930.
Nodine TR. How did we get here? A brief history of competency-based higher education in the United States. J Competency-Based Educ 2016;1:5–11. DOI: 10.1002/cbe2.1004.
Clark JD, Robertson LJ, Harden RM. Applying learning outcomes to dental education. British Dent J 2004;196:357–359. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4811084.
Harden RM, Crosby JR, Davis H. AMM guide no. 14: Outcome-based education: Part 1 An introduction to outcome-based education. Med Teach 1999;21:7–14. DOI: 10.1080/01421599979969.
Yip HK, Smales RJ. Review of Competency Based Education in Dentistry. Br Dent J 2000;189:324–326. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4800758.
American Dental Education Association Competencies for the new general dentist. J Dent Educ 2008;72:823–826.
Dreyfus S, Dreyfus H. A five stage model of the mental activities involved in directed skill acquisition. California University Berkeley Operations Research Center [monograph on the Internet]; 1980. Available from: https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a084551.pdf. (accessed on 29 March 2019).
Bruer JT. The mind's journey from novice to expert: if we know the route, we can help students negotiate their way. Am Educator 1993;17:6–15.
Cate OT. A primer on entrustable professional activities. Korean J Med Educ 2018;30:1–10. DOI: 10.3946/kjme.2018.76.
Ten Cate O, Chen HC, Hoff RG, Peters H, Bok H, van der Schaaf M, Curriculum. development for the workplace using Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs): AMEE Guide No. 99. Med Teach. 2015;37:983–1002. DOI: 10.3109/0142159X.2015.1060308.
Sandars J. The use of reflection in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 44. Med Teach 2009;31:685–695. DOI: 10.1080/01421590903050374.
Spady WG, Mitchell DE. Competency Based Education: Organisational Issues and Implications. Educ Res 1977;6:9–15. DOI: 10.3102/0013189X006002009.
Competency-Based Education Network. (May 2017). Quality principles and standards for competency-based education programs. Available from http://www.cbenetwork.org. (accessed on 29 March 2019).