SBV Journal of Basic, Clinical and Applied Health Science

Register      Login

VOLUME 6 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2023 ) > List of Articles


School Dropouts among Adolescent Girls and Violence against Women: Strategies for Their Containment

Swapnil Inkane, Prithvi Brahmanand Petkar

Keywords : Adolescent girls, Child marriage, School dropouts, Violence against women

Citation Information : Inkane S, Petkar PB. School Dropouts among Adolescent Girls and Violence against Women: Strategies for Their Containment. 2023; 6 (3):59-64.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-03197

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 06-07-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Introduction: Adolescent girls are the future of human society and for a better future of mankind and the progress of the society, they must attend schools regardless of their origin. The objective of the present review is to explore the magnitude and reasons for school dropouts and violence against women, and then propose strategies for improving the existing scenario. Methods: We performed a detailed search on the PubMed and Google Scholar search engines. In addition, we also screened the World Health Organization website and United Nations Population Fund website. Keywords used in the search include adolescent girls, school dropouts, child marriage, and violence against women in the title alone only. A total of 20 research articles and 14 weblinks and reports were selected as they were in alignment with the current review. Results: It is the need of the hour to implement measures to simultaneously deal with both the challenges and ensure the holistic development of girls. As adolescents are the future of any nation, it is the need of the hour to deliver health care services in such a way that no adolescent is left behind and all of them can avail of timely health care. Living in a world in which women are free from violence is within reachable distance. It can easily be attained, once people start listening and health professionals can easily fulfill this role, provided they are empowered to act. There is an immense need to establish a comprehensive system to provide medical and psychological care to the survivors of sexual violence, and even extend rehabilitation and supportive care in communities through trained healthcare staff. Conclusion: To conclude, the extension of the right support to an adolescent girl is the ultimate approach to having a better future, not only for adolescent girls but also for their families and communities. As the humanitarian conflicts are not expected to be resolved in the near future, there is a great need to extend health care, support, and rehabilitation services to women and girls to enable them to lead a normal life.

  1. United Nations Children Fund. Child marriage; 2022. Available from:
  2. World Health Organization. Child marriages: 39 000 every day; 2013. Available from:
  3. McGuire C, Stephenson R. Community factors influencing birth spacing among married women in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Afr J Reprod Health 2015;19(1):14–24. PMID: 26103691.
  4. Fidan A, Bui HN. Intimate partner violence against women in Zimbabwe. Violence Against Women 2016;22(9):1075–1096. DOI: 10.1177/1077801215617551.
  5. United Nations Population Fund. “What our daughter has done is a miracle” – the power of one adolescent girl; 2016. Available from:
  6. Tegegne TK, Sisay MM. Menstrual hygiene management and school absenteeism among female adolescent students in Northeast Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 2014;14:1118. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-1118.
  7. Sommer M, Caruso BA, Sahin M, Calderon T, Cavill S, Mahon T, et al. A time for global action: addressing girls’ menstrual hygiene management needs in schools. PLoS Med 2016;13(2):e1001962. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001962.
  8. van Eijk AM, Sivakami M, Thakkar MB, Bauman A, Laserson KF, Coates S, et al. Menstrual hygiene management among adolescent girls in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2016;6(3):e010290. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010290.
  9. Hennegan J, Montgomery P. Do menstrual hygiene management interventions improve education and psychosocial outcomes for women and girls in low and middle income countries? A systematic review. PLoS One 2016;11(2):e0146985. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146985.
  10. Montgomery P, Ryus CR, Dolan CS, Dopson S, Scott LM. Sanitary pad interventions for girls’ education in Ghana: A pilot study. PLoS One 2012;7(10):e48274. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048274.
  11. United Nations Population Fund. Periods not a problem thanks to pad-making club in Malawi; 2016. Available from:
  12. World Health Organization. Adolescent and young adult health – Key Facts; 2022. Available from:
  13. World Health Organization. Adolescent pregnancy – Key Facts; 2022. Available from:
  14. World Health Organization. Finding the gaps in meeting adolescent health needs in Nepal; 2016. Available from:
  15. World Health Organization. Female genital mutilation – Key Facts; 2023. Available from:
  16. Gebremariam K, Assefa D, Weldegebreal F. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, Eastern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional mixed study. Int J Womens Health 2016;8:357–365. DOI: 10.2147/IJWH.S111091.
  17. Gajaa M, Wakgari N, Kebede Y, Derseh L. Prevalence and associated factors of circumcision among daughters of reproductive aged women in the Hababo Guduru district, Western Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. BMC Womens Health 2016;16:42. DOI: 10.1186/s12905-016-0322-6.
  18. Setegn T, Lakew Y, Deribe K. Geographic variation and factors associated with female genital mutilation among reproductive age women in Ethiopia: A national population based survey. PLoS One 2016;11(1):e0145329. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145329.
  19. United Nations Population Fund. The first rule of the married girls’ club is: empower girls; 2016. Available from:
  20. Hotchkiss DR, Godha D, Gage AJ, Cappa C. Risk factors associated with the practice of child marriage among Roma girls in Serbia. BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2016;16:6. DOI: 10.1186/s12914-016-0081-3.
  21. United Nations Population Fund. Astrologers, shamans and priests mobilize against child marriage in Nepal; 2016. Available from:
  22. Cousins S. Nepal hopes anti-child-marriage plan will make a difference. Lancet 2016;387(10035):2279. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30713-9.
  23. World Health Organization. Violence against women – Key Facts; 2021. Available from:
  24. The Lancet. Protecting health in Yemen. Lancet 2016;388(10054):1852. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31844-X.
  25. United Nations Population Fund. Violence against women escalates under Yemen's brutal conflict; 2016. Available from:
  26. Muthumbi J, Svanemyr J, Scolaro E, Temmerman M, Say L. Female genital mutilation: A literature review of the current status of legislation and policies in 27 African countries and Yemen. Afr J Reprod Health 2015;19(3):32–40. PMID: 26897911.
  27. Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Implementing universal minimal standards to counter the challenge of gender-based violence in emergencies. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2016;9(4):289–290. Available from:
  28. Garcia LP. The invisible magnitude of violence against women. Epidemiol Serv Saude 2016;25(3):451–454. DOI: 10.5123/S1679-49742016000300001.
  29. Askew I. Health workers: Listening when women need it most; 2016. Available from:
  30. Torralbas-Fernández A, Calcerrada-Gutiérrez M. Using primary care to address violence against women in intimate partner relationships: Professional training needs. MEDICC Rev 2016;18(4):38–41. DOI: 10.37757/MR2016.V18.N4.8.
  31. United Nations Population Fund. Women face “unspeakable” sexual violence in South Sudan; 2016. Available from:
  32. Basile KC, Smith SG, Walters ML, Fowler DN, Hawk K, Hamburger Me. Sexual violence victimization and associations with health in a community sample of Hispanic women. J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 2015;24(1):1–17. DOI: 10.1080/15313204.2014.964441.
  33. Kouta C, Pithara C, Zobnina A, Apostolidou Z, Christodoulou J, Papadakaki M, et al. A systematic review of training interventions addressing sexual violence against marginalized at-risk groups of women. Health Educ Res 2015;30(6):971–984. DOI: 10.1093/her/cyv053.
  34. Ashimi A, Amole T, Ugwa E. Reported sexual violence among women and children seen at the gynecological emergency unit of a rural tertiary health facility, Northwest Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2015;5(1):26–29. DOI: 10.4103/2141-9248.149780.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.