Background: Modern-day lifestyles increase stress due to changes at physical, mental, and emotional level. Social, career, and family pressures, coupled with deviations from traditional healthy dietary habits have contributed remarkably in escalating the physical and psychological problems faced by the women passing through the transition phase of menopause. Bhramari pranayama is a yogic breathing practice that helps to improve the physical health and the cognitive functions by reducing anxiety among menopausal women.
Aim: To assess the effect of Bhramari pranayama on the physiological, psychological, and cognitive functions in menopausal women.
Materials and methods: An experimental study with pre and post-design was conducted on 30 women in the age range of 40–60 years for 10 days, with an intervention of Bhramari pranayama every day for 30 minutes. Physical and psychological parameters were recorded before and after the commencement of the Bhramari practice and values of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), digit letter substitution test (DLST), blood pressure and pulse rate were collected. The subjects were given Bhramari pranayama practice instructions—verbal, in writing, and through demonstration.
Results: Anxiety as measured by STAI has reduced significantly after 10 days of Bhramari pranayama (7 %, p < 0.001). Attention and concentration levels as well as eye-hand coordination have improved and are reflected in the Pre and Post-DLST scores. The effect after 10 days of Bhramari practice is 20%, p < 0.001). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure have decreased significantly after 10 days of Bhramari pranayama practice (10%, p < 0.001) and (10%, p < 0.001) respectively. Whereas pulse rate showed significant improvement (9%, p < 0.001) after 10 days.
Conclusion: Ten days of Bhramari pranayama showed significant improvement in physical health and cognitive functions by reducing anxiety among menopausal women.
Gougeon A. Dynamics of follicular growth in the human: a model from preliminary results. Hum Reprod 1986;1(2):81–87. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.humrep.a136365.
Brokaw JJ, Tunnicliff G, Raess BU, Saxon DW. The teaching of complementary and alternative medicine in US medical schools: a survey of course directors. Acad Med 2002;77(9):876–881. DOI: 10.1097/00001888-200209000-00013.
Dennerstein L, Smith AMA, Morse C, Burger H, Green A, Hopper J, et al. Menopausal symptoms in Australian women. Med J Aus 1993;159:232–236. DOI: 10.5694/j.1326-5377.1993.tb137821.x.
Speroff L, Fritz MA, editors. Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.
Stachowiak G, Pertyński T, Pertyńska-Marczewska M. Metabolic disorders in menopause. Menopause Review/Przegląd Menopauzalny. 2015 25;14(1):59–64. DOI: 10.5114/pm.2015.50000.
Kumari M, Stafford M, Marmot M. The menopausal transition was associated in a prospective study with decreased health functioning in women who report menopausal symptoms. J Clin Epidemiol 2005;58(7):719–727. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2004.09.016.
Harris AL, Harrison A. Examining sleep disturbance during the menopausal period. Nurs Womens Health 2020;24(2):134–142. DOI: 10.1016/j.nwh.2020.01.008.
Weber MT, Rubin LH, Maki PM. Cognition in perimenopause: the effect of transition stage. Menopause (New York, NY). 2013;20(5). DOI: 10.1097/gme.0b013e31827655e5.
Chaudhuri A, Ray M, Saldanha D, Sarkar SK. Effects of progressive muscle relaxation on postmenopausal stress. J Sci Soc 2015;42(2):62. DOI: 10.4103/0974-5009.157028.
Agıl A, Abıke F, Daşkapan A, Alaca R, Tuzun H. Short-term exercise approaches on menopausal symptoms, psychological health, and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol Int 2010;2010. DOI: 10.1155/2010/274261.
Macías-Cortés ED, Llanes-González L, Aguilar-Faisal L, Asbun-Bojalil J. Individualized homeopathic treatment and fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression in peri-and postmenopausal women (HOMDEP-MENOP study): A randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS One 2015;10(3):0118440. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118440.
Ayers B, Mann E, Hunter MS. A randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy for women with problematic menopausal hot flushes: MENOS 2 trial protocol. BMJ Open 2011;1(1):000047. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2010-000047.
Dong H, Ludicke F, Comte I, Campana A, Graff P, Bischof P. An exploratory pilot study of acupuncture on the quality of life and reproductive hormone secretion in menopausal women. J Altern Complement Med 2001;7(6):651–658. DOI: 10.1089/10755530152755207.
Xu M, Bélanger L, Ivers H, Guay B, Zhang J, Morin CM. Comparison of subjective and objective sleep quality in menopausal and non-menopausal women with insomnia. Sleep Med 2011;12(1):65–69. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2010.09.003.
Zaborowska E, Brynhildsen J, Damberg S, Fredriksson M, Lindh-Åstrand L, Nedstrand E, et al. Effects of acupuncture, applied relaxation, estrogens and placebo on hot flushes in postmenopausal women: an analysis of two prospective, parallel, randomized studies. Climacteric 2007;10(1):38–45. DOI: 10.1080/13697130601165059.
Nedstrand E, Wijma K, Wyon Y, Hammar M. Applied relaxation and oral estradiol treatment of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 2005;51(2):154–162. DOI: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2004.05.017.
Innes KE, Selfe TK, Vishnu A. Mind-body therapies for menopausal symptoms: a systematic review. Maturitas 2010;66(2):135–149. DOI: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.01.016.
Chattha R, Raghuram N, Venkatram P, Hongasandra NR. Treating the climacteric symptoms in Indian women with an integrated approach to yoga therapy: A randomized control study. Menopause 2008;15(5):862–870. DOI: 10.1097/gme.0b013e318167b902.
Bapat R, Metri K, Vaidya M. Pre-post study of efficacy of aum chanting on insomnia in elderly urban female population of Thane City. 2020;2(1):114.
Vora R, Dangi A. Effect of yoga on menopausal symptoms in the early menopausal period: A randomized controlled trial. Indian J Occup Ther 2014;8(3):49. DOI: 10.5958/0973-5674.2014.00355.4.
Afonso RF, Hachul H, Kozasa EH, de Souza Oliveira D, Goto V, Rodrigues D, et al. Yoga decreases insomnia in postmenopausal women: A randomized clinical trial. Menopause 2012;19(2):186–193. DOI: 10.1097/gme.0b013e318228225f.
Chethana KS, Satyapriya M, Mangesh P. Effects of trataka on women having menopause symptoms. Int J Healthc Sci 2022;10(1):43–49. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6623456.
Jain G, Rajak C, Rampalliwar S. Effect of Bhramari Pranayama on Volunteers Having Cardiovascular Hyper-reactivity to Cold Pressor Test. J Yoga Phys Ther 2011;1(1):1–4. ISSN: 2157-7595.
Rampalliwar S, Rajak C, Arjariya R, Poonia M, Bajpai R. The effect of bhramari pranayama on pregnant women having cardiovascular hyper-reactivity to cold pressor. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol 2013;3(2):137. DOI: 10.5455/njppp.2013.3.128-133.
Pramanik T, Pudasaini B, Prajapati R. Immediate effect of a slow pace breathing exercise Bhramari pranayama on blood pressure and heart rate. Nepal Med Coll J 2010;12(3):154–157. PMID: 21446363.
Vialatte FB, Bakardjian H, Prasad R, Cichocki A. EEG paroxysmal gamma waves during Bhramari pranayama: A yoga breathing technique. Conscious Cogn 2009;18(4):977–988. DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2008.01.004.
Rajesh SK, Ilavarasu JV, Srinivasan TM. Effect of Bhramari pranayama on response inhibition: Evidence from the stop signal task. Int J Yoga 2014;7(2):138. DOI: 10.4103/0973-6131.133896.
Kuppusamy M, Kamaldeen D, Pitani R, Amaldas J, Shanmugam P. Effects of Bhramari pranayama on health–A systematic review. J Tradit Complement Med 2018;8(1):11–16. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.02.003.
Nagendra HR, and Nagarathna R. Promotion of positive health. Bangalore: Swami Vivekananda Yoga Prakashana, 2001. 51.
Spielberger C, Gonzalez-Reigosa F, Martinez-Urrutia A, Natalicio LF, Natalicio DS. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Interam J Psychol 1971:5(3–4). DOI: 10.30849/rip/ijp.v5i3%20&%204.620.
Shashidhara. Effect of yoga on mental health among young and seniors in India. Int J Adapt Phys Educ Yoga 2016;3(1). ISSN: 2455-8958.
Pradhan B, Nagendra HR. Effect of yoga relaxation techniques on performance of digit–letter substitution task by teenagers. Int J Yoga 2009;2(1):30. DOI: 10.4103/0973-6131.43293.
Gaertner B, Wagner M, Luck T, Buttery AK, Fuchs J, Busch MA. Normative data for the Digit Symbol Substitution Test in a population-based sample aged 65–79 years: Results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1). Clin Neuropsychol 2018;32(sup1):114–132. DOI: 10.1080/13854046.2018.1484168.
Rajkishor P, Fumitoshi M, Bakardjia H, Vialatte F, Cichocki A. EEG changes after Bhramari Pranayama. In SCIS & ISIS SCIS & ISIS 2006;390–395. J Jpn Soc Fuzzy Theory Intel Informat 2006.
Jerath R, Edry JW, Barnes VA, Jerath V. Physiology of long pranayamic breathing: neural respiratory elements may provide a mechanism that explains how slow deep breathing shifts the autonomic nervous system. Med Hypotheses 2006;67(3):566–571. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2006.02.042.