COVID-19 is a present pandemic infecting at exponential rates. Clinical presentations include fever, fatigue, myalgia, and dry cough; however, many atypical presentations have also been reported. COVID-19 is found to have cause pregnancy complications and is said to produce a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. This article is a review on clinical presentation of COVID-19 including its atypical presentation and presentation in pregnancy, children, and old age.
Novel coronavirus, termed as COVID-19, infection has become a sudden global pandemic, and it is transmitted from human to human. With no evidence-based vaccine or medicine available to treat this viral infection, its incidence and sequelae in antenatal women are debatable, especially in terms of fetomaternal transmission. Pregnant women present with varied flu-like symptoms such as sore throat, throat pain, cough, and fever. They also present with features of dyspnea or shortness of breath. These have been categorized under severe acute respiratory illness per World Health Organization guidelines. Critically ill pregnant women who are COVID-19 positive are monitored and managed with viral pneumonia protocol. The study reiterates judicious use of hydroxychloroquine and antibiotics with proper conservative management. Fetomaternal transmission of COVID-19 is still a controversy, and babies born to COVID-19-positive mothers do not have any potential morbidities. Extensive and stringent care must be provided during antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum period to ensure transmission-free clinical scenario. The study reemphasizes the fact that it along with maternal and postnatal care, awareness, knowledge, and attitude is essential, and practice on COVID-19 management in pregnancy should be reiterated among all mothers as well as healthcare workers. Proper teaching on hygienic practices, breastfeeding, and postnatal care of the neonates is essential, and mothers should be counseled about the precautionary measures to be followed at the time of discharge.
Worldwide, the incidence of infertility is 15%. In India, the incidence of infertility varies between states ranging between 3.9% and 16.8%. India has 22–23 million infertile couples, and the total fertility rate has declined from 3.9 in 1990s to 2.3 in 2019. At present, the estimated number of in vitro fertilization cycles countrywide are around 100,000, and it was expected to reach 250,000 by the end of 2020. But with the COVID-19 pandemic, all these treatments have been brought to a sudden halt. Decision to stop all treatment is because SARS CoV2 is a global health pandemic and infertility treatments are usually electively done. Also we need more studies to show that COVID-19 has no effect on newer pregnancies.
Saravana Kumar Ravindran
A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) poses a big challenge for healthcare professionals around the entire world. As the salivary titer of virus is very high, the dental professionals face high risk in rendering dental services. Most of the dental services in the country through colleges and clinics are shut down due to its spread by contact with droplets and transmission by aerosols. The Dental Council of India, the Indian Dental Association, and the Ministry of Health has framed certain guidelines to provide the emergency and urgent dental care pertaining to red, orange, and green zones as declared by the government. Guidelines also address academic schedules for undergraduate and postgraduate students. This review briefs academic and clinical guidelines for dental professionals taking in consideration the current scenario. These guidelines may change from time to time depending on the course of the diseases and regional needs. It is the responsibility of healthcare facilities and individual dentists to be aware of the updates and redefine their facilities and practice accordingly.
Lohith Sai Varma,
As the global pandemic of COVID-19 progresses, apart from clinical findings, imaging also plays an equally important role in the diagnosis and management. In imaging, much of the literature is focused on chest computed tomography (CT). However, due to infection control issues and lack of availability of CT scan in many centers, bedside chest X-ray (CXR) and lung ultrasound is also being used rampantly. In cases of high clinical suspicion of COVID-19, CXR can obviate the need for CT thorax. Additionally, in areas around the world with limited access to reliable reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction COVID-19 testing, radiological imaging becomes crucial for diagnosis and follow-up. This article describes the most common manifestations and patterns of lung abnormalities on CXR, CT thorax, and lung ultrasound in a suspected case of COVID-19 pneumonia. Early evidence suggests that initial CXR will show abnormality in most patients. The corresponding CT scan can pick up findings that may be overlooked in CXR. The progression of the disease is assessed by follow-up CT scans/X-rays. Progression and regression of disease process can be monitored by a combination of imaging modalities that facilitate clinicians to tailor management protocols.
Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19), also named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a highly contagious disease, which has lead on to ongoing pandemic outbreak and now ended up in global public health emergency. This article will briefly review the morphology, genomic nature, and pathogenesis of this virus. In addition to it, brief description on laboratory diagnosis, approach to treatment, and preventive measures of COVID-19 based on various published research literature has been discussed.
K Anandraj Vaithy,
COVID-19, being a dreadly viral infection, has put the entire globe in a pandemic situation in the present scenario. The RNA virus was first reported in later 2019; various diagnostic modalities are applied including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) since PCR detects RNA viruses and their strain. Though many theories had been proposed and accepted worldwide, the path and sequelae of COVID-19 is debatable especially after the release of the autopsy analysis conducted at Italy, the results of which turned out to be a revolutionary tool in managing COVID-19 patients. The coronavirus could be classified based on its characteristics into many types such as O, A2, A2a, A3, B, B1, totally numbering to 11 strains. It has been proved by research studies including an Indian institute's study that “A2a” strain is the most predominant and virulent strain. The basic pathogenic molecular mechanism of SARS-Cov2 is by entering the lung system and cells and disrupting the 1-β chain of hemoglobin and extracting out the porphyrin rings and dissociating the iron content from it, thereby releasing iron into the circulation. The increased Hb production eventually leads to increase in the blood viscosity level with recurrent and diffuse micro- and macrocirculatory thrombosis in the form of blood clot, the major underlying reason substantiating the elevated levels of D-dimer among the infected patients and thus explaining the cause of sudden deterioration and death. COVID-19 management warrants a multidimensional approach in management, and judicious laboratory diagnosis plays a vital role in picking up the infected cases. Scientific reviews throws light on the primary underlying pathophysiology, thereby redirecting the mode of approach and subsequent management and proclaiming that the grave condition is associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation with microthrombi warranting rationale treatment with anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant drugs rather than empirical and irrational usage of mechanical ventilators.
Kartik J Salwe,
R Sudar Codi,
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02241 |
Open Access |
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How to cite this article:
Saravanabavan N, Kumarappan M, Salwe KJ, Datchanamurthy B, Pandian J, Shanmuganathan P, Codi RS, Ananthy V, Thanuskodi K, Narayanamurthy U. An Overview of COVID-19: Focus on Pharmacological Aspect. 2020; 3 (2):75-79.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which has been declared as Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) is one of the major disasters in the 21st century. Initially, COVID-19 is called as 2019 novel coronavirus by the Chinese researchers, and later, the disease was named as COVID-19 and the virus as SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. It is a single-stranded RNA virus that mainly enters the human cells by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors like SARS-CoV. The important mode of transmission is through droplets and close contact with the infected people. As soon as the virus enters the human cells, it causes symptoms like cough, fever, headache, and fatigue after an incubation period of 5.2 days. There is no approved treatment or vaccine for this disease so far but many drugs have been tried from the experience obtained while treating SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. In this article, we discussed the pathogenesis, transmission, clinical features, challenges for control, diagnosis, and treatment advancements to overcome COVID-19.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the etiological agent for pneumonia of unknown cause, which broke out in 2019 in Wuhan city, China. The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was considered as a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) and had caused significant panic globally. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been advised for prophylaxis against COVID-19 for the prevention of transmission by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) based on in vitro studies conducted by National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune. This article reviews the revised ICMR guidelines on the use of HCQ as prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2, the proposed mechanism of HCQ prophylaxis, and its efficacy in COVID-19.
“Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2” is responsible for the COVID-19. It was identified in China in December 2019 and it was “declared as a pandemic” disease by “the World Health Organization” in “March 2020”. This review article is an attempt to give an insight into the management of COVID-19 in the Siddha medicine aspect to potential treatment strategies in herbal and herbomineral formulations for the recently recognized “SARS-CoV-2” L strain.
A new public health emergency has arisen in the world due to the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The deadly virus had its first origin from Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. As per the World Health Organization report, there have been around 4,628,903 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 312,009 deaths globally to date (May 18, 2020). The mode of transmission of this disease is through close contacts (about 6 feet) mainly via respiratory droplets of infected individual. Estimated case fatality rate varies between 2 and 3. In the absence of definite treatment for COVID-19, the evidence- based supportive care with preventive measures is the only way known so far for its management. In this review, we summarized the existing research results to describe the current pandemic of COVID-19.
Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory illness caused by a novel human coronavirus. The two main routes of transmission of the COVID-19 virus, described at present, are respiratory droplets and contact. Preventive and mitigation measures are key in breaking the chain. The most effective preventive measures include performing hand hygiene frequently or avoiding touching your face; practising respiratory hygiene; wearing a medical mask at all times if you have respiratory symptoms while going out and performing hand hygiene after disposing of the mask, and maintaining social distance (a minimum of 1 m) from persons with respiratory symptoms or even general population while outside. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by novel human corona virus has made knowledge regarding respiratory hygiene, respiratory protective equipment, and personal hygiene the need of the hour.