SBV Journal of Basic, Clinical and Applied Health Science

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2020 | July-September | Volume 3 | Issue 3

EDITORIAL

Subhash C Parija, Balachandra V Adkoli

Medical Professionalism: during COVID-19 Times and Beyond

[Year:2020] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:93 - 95]

Keywords: Competency-based medical education, Faculty development program, Medical education, Portfolio, Professionalism, Quality assurance

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02265  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

This article is third in the series of articles exploring the role of professionalism in medical education. In the earlier episodes, we have discussed, the meaning and importance of medical professionalism, and the challenges involved in teaching this key component in the undergraduate medical curriculum based on competency-based medical education (CBME). However, the pandemic of COVID-19 has shocked the entire medical education system. Nevertheless, it has forced the medical colleges to explore alternate modes of online teaching. With this development, the role of various stakeholders, the faculty, the students, medical colleges, regulators, and the civil society will drastically change as the technology will take the central stage. We offer some concrete suggestions, which include reorganization of faculty, upgrading of IT infrastructure and simulation labs, retraining of the faculty and students in tune with the technology, and synergizing faculty development with internal quality assurance. We conclude that development of medical professionalism is a long-drawn agenda and we need to collect further evidence, which will take time.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Subramani Parasuraman, Subramani Balamurugan, Raipan Vanishya

Overview of Safety Assessment and Toxicological Screening of Dermal Formulations

[Year:2020] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:96 - 103]

Keywords: Draize\'s criteria, Globally harmonized system, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Toxicity

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02258  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The skin is one of our largest organs and the delivery of drugs via the skin is gorgeous and also challenging vicinity in research. The dermal formulations are used for cosmetic and therapeutic purposes by various age groups. Hence, the safety data are essential for these preparations and required long-term toxicity testing is essential to prevent delayed effects on users/consumers. In recent years, use of dermal preparations including cosmetic products has ever increased globally which exhibiting potential health risks including mild hypersensitivity and lethal intoxication. Hence, testing any formulation including dermal preparations for its toxicity is the basic requirement in most toxicological frameworks. Moreover, many of the dermal preparations are available over-the-counter. Hence, the data on the safety of these preparations are very essential, which can be studied using preclinical models, preferably using cell lines or animals. The purpose of the current review is to summarize the toxicity testing methods for dermal preparations.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Selvaraj Stephen, Jothimani Pradeep

Application and Interpretation of Antibody-based Rapid Test Kits in the Context of Laboratory Diagnosis of COVID-19

[Year:2020] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:104 - 106]

Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, Immunochromatographic test, SARS-CoV 2

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02252  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Rapid kits, which are known as point-of-care (POC) tests, are extremely helpful in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially in remote rural areas as well as in physicians’ clinics. Since the results are available within 30 minutes, appropriate treatment can be initiated without delay and thus avoiding any complications/mortality. However, in the present scenario of COVID-19 pandemic, the need for adequate validation of the antibody-based rapid kits as an emergency is a challenge. The test results of these kits are to be interpreted with sufficient caution and proper clinical correlation. Track records of the kit manufacturers need proper scrutiny before taking a decision to use a particular test kit.

Original Article

Manoharan Mangalagowri, Rajendran Jayanthi, Abu R Srinivasan, Ananda B Bhavanani, Ramanathan Meena

Proposed Yoga Protocol Based on Glycemic Control, Insulin Resistance and Anthropometry-specified Parameters: A Retrospective Study on Clinically Euthyroid Type II Diabetics

[Year:2020] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:107 - 114]

Keywords: Anthropometry, Asian Indian, Euthyroid, Insulin resistance, T2DM, WHO, Yoga

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02250  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background and objectives: Inclusion of yoga in the daily routine would favorably moderate glycemic control, alleviate insulin resistance (IR), besides reducing the risk of complications in people with long-standing diabetes and comorbidity. The body mass index (BMI) cut-off criteria are different as per the Asian Indian and WHO standards. Accordingly, overweight range of 23–24.9 in the Asian Indian category will fall under the nonobese category. Obese range of ≥25 BMI in the Asian Indian group will come under the overweight category as per the WHO standards. To devise a unique yoga protocol based on anthropometry and biochemical assessment, has been proposed with reference to specific parameters in insulin-resistant, clinically euthyroid type II diabetics with special reference to Asian Indian and WHO standards. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry with inputs from the diabetic clinic of a tertiary care teaching hospital as well as a designated center for yoga therapy, following acceptance from the research advisory committee. The study subjects were clinically euthyroid type II diabetics (both genders) in the age group 35–70 years who were on diabetic diet and oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs). Data from clinically euthyroid type II diabetics (n = 101) (adult males and females in the age group 35–70) were utilized for the study. The Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate analysis were enabled and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Statistically significant associations were observed between IR (dependent variable) and other independent variables, namely HbA1c, TAG/HDL (surrogate marker of small dense LDL), and thyroid hormones. With reference to BMI, based on Asian Indian standards, TAG/HDL depicted association with homeostasis model assessment-Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.011) and TSH was negatively associated with HbA1c (p = 0.027) in overweight; HbA1c and TSH exhibited positive association with p = 0.001 and 0.04, respectively, in obese as per the Asian Indian criteria for BMI. Keeping BMI as per the WHO, TAG/HDL (p = 0.008) in nonobese and in overweight HbA1c with p = 0.001 were associated with HOMA-IR. Significant association was not found in the obese subjects, as per the WHO standards. Conclusion: There is a need for a unique yoga protocol to address clinically euthyroid type II diabetics. Hitherto, such a protocol has not been developed, especially with reference to BMI, as per the Asian Indian and WHO standards. Practicing this proposed yoga protocol on the basis of anthropometry might prove beneficial in glycemic control, alleviating IR, besides reducing complications of type II diabetics in euthyroid population who may later be candidates for frank thyroid comorbidity.

Original Article

B Kadalmani, R Niranjana, Uma A Natarajan, I Sarath Chandiran

Antifertility and Antioxidant Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Leonotis nepetifolia in Male Albino Rats

[Year:2020] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:115 - 121]

Keywords: Antifertility, Impregnation, Leonotis nepetifolia, Motility, Sperm count

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02263  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background and objective: This study based on the antifertility action of Leonotis nepetifolia ethanol extract (whole plant) in the animal model male Wistar Albino rats. Leonotis nepetifolia is reported to have antioxidant activity, antiproliferative potential, hypotensive potential, anti-inflammatory, antiplasmodial, antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anticancer, laxative and narcotic activities. The plant aids in the recovery of malaria, diarrhea, bronchial asthma, common cold, cough, and fever, particularly used during menstrual pain. Materials and methods: The animals were grouped into four with five rats each. Control group (group I) received normal saline. The other three groups of rats were treated with the specified dose (group II-100 mg/kg, group III-150 mg/kg, and group III-200 mg/kg) of Leonotis nepetifolia ethanolic extract for a period of 55 days. Results: A marked reduction in the weight of accessory sex organs/testis, sperm count, and sperm motility were observed in the treated groups. Serum hormonal levels and few biochemical parameters also showed variation compared to the control group. The reports revealed that the treated adult male rats had decreased the counts of female\'s impregnation. Conclusion: Hence, this current research concluded that L. nepetifolia ethanolic extract (whole plant) repressed sperm motility, concentration, and the testosterone proving dose-dependent antifertility effect.

Original Article

Nupur Hooja, Surabhi Arora, Smriti Bhargava, Premlata Mital

Socioeconomic–demographic Factors in Varying Degrees of Anemia in Pregnancy

[Year:2020] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:122 - 124]

Keywords: Anemia, Demographic, Literacy, Socioeconomic

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02239  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The prevalence of anemia in pregnancy varies considerably because of differences in socioeconomic conditions. The aim was to study association of sociodemographic factors with varying degrees of anemia. Materials and methods: The study done at SMS Medical College, Jaipur, included four groups of normal, mild, moderate, and severely anemic women with 35 women in each group. Data on sociodemographic details of the women were collected and analyzed. Results: Women from rural area, lower socioeconomic background, and with poor education had more number of cases with severe anemia. The average duration at antenatal booking was 14 weeks in nonanemic and 28.2 weeks in severe anemia. Conclusion: Poor literacy levels, rural background, and lower socioeconomic background influence the degree of anemia. Early antenatal booking should be enforced. Clinical significance: Educational and economic upliftment of the women would help to reduce the overall prevalence of anemia in pregnancy.

Original Article

G Ezhumalai, Siva Green

Review of Global COVID-19 Cases and its Association with Selected Variables

[Year:2020] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:125 - 127]

Keywords: Correlation, COVID-19, Migration

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02246  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background and objective: In the alarming situation of COVID-19, every country is struggling to contain the spread. This study aimed to review the situation and correlate selected variables with a number of cases. Materials and methods: The secondary data were collected from various sources in both government and non-government agencies for the review and analysis. Spearman\'s rho correlation was used to make inference about the association of COVID-19 cases with selected variables. Results: Among the 10 countries included in the analysis, the USA had the highest number of COVID-19 cases as of April 26, 2020. Italy performed well in terms of number of tests per million population with 31,600 and India was very poor with 602. Positive case detection was 26.8% in France and India had just 3.2%. The proportion of urban population, elderly population, and tests per million population were significantly contributed to higher incidence of COVID-19 cases. Conclusion: Special activities should be focused on urban population and elderly population to control COVID-19, and surveillance capacity should be increased extremely.

View Point

Bhuvaneswari Ramesh

Influence of Music as a Coping Strategy during COVID-19

[Year:2020] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:128 - 130]

Keywords: Coping, COVID-19, Crisis, Managing stress, Music, Music therapy, Salutogenesis, Self-care

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02266  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

COVID-19 or coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic is an acute respiratory syndrome, the causes and the effects of which are found to be enormous while the outcome and the treatments are still being understood. To handle the unknown, every country has brought in rules and regulations to safeguard the huge human population and lockdowns in movement and creating awareness on being socially distant. The sudden situation of crisis brought into our lives has also caused uncertainty about the future and the outcomes of this have been found to be psychological trauma and fear. Music along with mankind has evolved as a way of coping strategy for stress during psychological trauma in people\'s lives. Music has been found to have a profound effect on the physiological, psychological, and socializing aspects of human life. World over people have been using music to connect with each other from their homes. Technological enhancements of using music can also help in self-care allowing one\'s emotions to be expressed even when the need to maintain social distancing is mandatory. This article hopes to bring out the mechanism of music and the different techniques that may be used as a way of coping with crisis situations such as the COVID-19.

CASE REPORT

Roshni Kakitha, Sreedevi Ambujam

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Man with Unusual Combination of Multiple Antibodies: A Rare Presentation

[Year:2020] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:131 - 132]

Keywords: Antibodies, Complement, Men, Systemic lupus erythematosus

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02237  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a connective tissue disorder involving multiple systems of the body, skin being one of the earliest systems to get involved. We report the case of a 29-year-old male patient, with acute vesicular malar rash and a host of positive antibodies, viz., ANA, anti-ds DNA, anti-Smith, APAbs, anti-U1RNP, and anti-histone. He also had low complement levels. Occurrence of SLE is rare in men. Presence of a variety of antibodies without the correlating systemic involvement is rarer still, making this a case worth reporting.

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Shivashankar Kengadaran, Anusha Divvi, Sivabalakumaran Kengadaran

Integrating Tobacco Control Measures with COVID-19 Control Programs: A Multisectoral Model

[Year:2020] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:133 - 133]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02249  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The first case of COVID-19 was reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. From then, there was a rapid spread of disease across countries resulting in a heavy toll of life. Most of the countries responded to the situation by immediate lockdown. Healthcare services were completely revamped and only emergency services were provided other than COVID-19 services. In India, more than one lakh cases were diagnosed; of which 3,000 were reported dead. Although the numbers show an increase in COVID-19 cases, the mortality of COVID-19 is not comparable to the tobacco epidemic in India. The lockdown has provided tobacco users with changed social circumstances and self-isolation, which makes quitting easier. However, following the lift of lockdown there is a peak expected in both COVID-19 cases and tobacco use. It is wiser to captivate on the existing scenario and integrate COVID-19 and tobacco control measures so that both the conditions can be handled effectively.

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