SBV Journal of Basic, Clinical and Applied Health Science

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2020 | October-December | Volume 3 | Issue 4

EDITORIAL

Sukanto Sarkar

Mental Health Challenges and COVID-19 Pandemic

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:2] [Pages No:135 - 136]

Keywords: COVID-19, Mental health, Positive coping, Stress

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02276  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Mental health issues have already emerged as a silent epidemic during the COVID-19 pandemic. From frontline workers to the general population, all have been affected by the wrath of this deadly disease. In these testing times, maintaining an adequate mental health is of prime importance. The healthy way to deal with stress, adapt to new normal lifestyle, and cope positively with the situation is the need for the hour.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Indrani Biswas, Shreyas S Kuduvalli, Mariappan Vignesh, Natarajan Mangaiyarkarasi, Thirugnanasambandhar S Anitha

Insights into Molecular Mediators of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Glioblastoma Multiforme

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:137 - 143]

Keywords: Glioblastoma multiforme, Inflammation, Molecular markers, Oxidative stress

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02274  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common aggressive and fatal forms of adult brain tumors. According to WHO classification, GBM is usually classified as a grade IV form of a brain tumor. Glioblastoma multiforme exhibits high intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity. Free radical generation in GBM plays a robust role in promoting and inducing inflammatory processes mediated by various signaling pathways mainly focusing on Janus-kinases (JAK). Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) stimulates signal transducer activating transcription factor 3 (STAT3) and JNK to induce proinflammatory cytokines, such as, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-8 to aggravate the inflammatory process. This review summarizes the convergence of inflammation and oxidative stress and examines the potential therapeutic targets aimed at the molecular markers in GBM.

Original Article

Roshni Kakitha, Sreedevi Ambujam

Dermoscopic Characteristics of Newly Diagnosed Hansen's Disease: A Prospective Descriptive Study

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:144 - 147]

Keywords: Dermatoscope, Dermoscope, Hansen\'s disease, Leprosy

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02267  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Dermoscopy is an in vivo, noninvasive technique that is a one-time investment, easy to operate, and permits the visualization of morphologic features of the skin that are not visible to the naked eye. Its usage as a diagnostic tool in Leprosy/Hansen\'s Disease (HD), an infiltrative disease is largely unexplored worldwide. Aims: To study dermoscopic features of newly diagnosed leprosy, and to compare these features with those of normal skin. Materials and methods: Prospective descriptive study conducted in 33 consecutive newly diagnosed leprosy patients and matched controls over a period of 18 months. Results: Changes in skin pattern were particularly discernible with white light. Yellow dots, white dots, hair density, and pigmentary network were appreciated using polarized light and ultraviolet light highlighted scales. All leprosy patches showed pigmentary dilution. Twenty-two of the 33 patients showed skin pattern loss both in the center and margin of the lesion. Perilesional skin showed normal pattern. Loss of skin pattern in comparison with the control group showed statistically significant difference. Ten patients showed patchy loss of skin pattern probably indicating early changes. Lesional skin but not the control skin showed a statistically significant reduction in white dots and hair density. Affected skin showed insignificant reduction in the number of yellow dots, i.e., sebaceous glands. Scaling was present in the margin and absent in the center, perilesional, and control skin. Limitations: The dermoscope that had been provided for the study did not have advanced features affecting the image quality. Also, the sample size for the study was 33, which is again a limitation, but considering the low incidence of leprosy in India, excluding criteria as well as a fixed study period of just 18 months, the sample size can be considered reasonable. Conclusion: Significant dermoscopic changes have been observed during the study, and hence we feel that dermoscope as a diagnostic tool has tremendous scope in the early diagnosis of leprosy, especially in situations where biopsy needs to be avoided (children, facial lesions) or in atypical clinical presentations that demand a supportive investigatory intervention. In this era of HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C, the importance of replacing an invasive procedure cannot be overemphasized. However, further studies on a larger population with advanced dermoscopes are necessary to support and strengthen our findings.

Original Article

Vignesh Mariappan, Azhagu Rani Manoharan, Agieshkumar Balakrishna Pillai

Dynamics of Transferrin 2 (Tsf2) Expression in Various Developmental Stages of Culex quinquefasciatus

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:148 - 153]

Keywords: Culex quinquefasciatus, Transferrin, Transferrin 2, Vector immunity

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02273  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Transferrin is an acute-phase protein known to be involved in insect immune responses. In the present study, we have assessed the transcript levels of transferrin 2 (Tsf2) in various developmental stages of vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Materials and methods: Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were reared in laboratory conditions. Total RNA was extracted from larvae, pupae, and adult mosquitoes using the trizol method. Complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized and utilized for gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the result was expressed in the percentage fold change. Results: In this study, we observed an elevation in the fold change expression of Tsf2 in the larval to pupal stages followed by a decline in the fold of the adult stage. We speculate that the upregulation may be because of the microbial challenge or the aquatic stages are programmed to synthesis more Tsf2 to encounter the upcoming microbes present in the aquatic environment. However, the same should be ascertained by screening for the presence of microorganisms if any. Conclusion: The study presents a dynamic change in the expression of Tsf2 during the developmental process of mosquito. The role of the protein in vector competence deserves further studies.

Original Article

Sathiya Ramasamy, Reeta Rajagambeeram, Ramesh Ramasamy, Sumathi Saravanan

Assessment of Serum Electrolytes and Divalent Cation in Preeclampsia: A Comparative Study

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:154 - 157]

Keywords: Electrolytes, Magnesium, Preeclampsia, South India

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02268  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background and objective: Preeclampsia is one of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, which affects 8–10% of pregnancy and it is the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Due to the significant role of serum electrolyte and magnesium in blood pressure regulation, this study was conducted to evaluate its role in preeclampsia. Materials and methods: A total of 30 subjects were recruited according to ACOG guidelines 2013 and 30 normotensive pregnant women, who were aged between 18 years and 40 years, who had referred from the obstetrics and gynecology department. Initially, 2 mL of blood samples were obtained from all the subjects and the samples were analyzed for serum magnesium by the calmagite method and electrolytes by the ion-selective electrode. The paired t test-Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to find if there was a significant difference between the groups. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Elevated systolic, diastolic blood pressure and decreased sodium, potassium, and magnesium levels were found in preeclampsia patients compared to normotensive pregnant woman. Conclusion: A decrease in serum magnesium and electrolyte levels contributes to the development of preeclampsia by regulating blood pressure.

Original Article

Rajalakshmi Kumar, Adithan Chandrasekaran, Ritushree Kukreti, Balanehru Subramanian

Identification of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and their Frequency Present in the Targeted Region of POR Gene in South Indian Population

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:158 - 163]

Keywords: Minor allele frequency, Polymorphism, POR gene, Single nucleotide polymorphism, South Indian

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02269  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background and objectives: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene act as an electron donor to other microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. This study is attempted to identify the POR genetic variants present in the proximal promoter region, hotspot coding regions that affect the function of POR gene, and the 3′UTR region encompassing miRNA binding sites among the South Indian population. Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from 110 south Indian subjects. Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood and the target regions of the POR gene were amplified using specific primers. The PCR amplicons were sequenced by the Sanger method. The variants present in proximal promoter region, exons (9, 10, 11, and 12) with boundary regions around 100 bp region and 3′UTR region, were analyzed. The microRNA database (miRDB) prediction tool was used to analyze miRNA binding regions in the 3′UTR region. Results: The SNPs (rs72553971, rs41301394, rs41301400, rs4732514, rs2286822, rs2286823, rs41301427, and rs17685) were observed in the POR gene with frequency of 2.7, 31.36, 2.27, 57.27, 23.63, 23.63, 14.54, and 35%, respectively. All these SNPs were previously reported in other populations. No novel variation has been observed in the hotspot coding region of the POR gene among South Indian population. Conclusion: The frequency of POR gene polymorphisms is reported for the first time among the South Indian population. This study provides fundamental and useful information on POR pharmacogenetics among this population, which can be utilized for future research.

Original Article

Ramalingam Sudha, Xavier Chandra Philip, KVP Suriyakumari

Phytochemical Constituents of Leaves of Moringa oleifera Grow in Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:164 - 167]

Keywords: Drumstick leaves, Maceration, Phytochemical, Saponins

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02270  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The plant products are used to treat various diseases instead of synthetic drugs owing to their least side effects. One of the important plants is Moringa oleifera. The micronutrients of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) have anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antiepileptic, and antitumor properties. Literature explored the contents of MOL from various countries and thus, the present study aims to evaluate the existence of phytochemicals present in the MOL grow in the Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and methods: The maceration technique was employed to extract the active contents of the powdered leaves with 70% ethanol. The acquired crude extract was subjected to detailed phytochemical analysis. We have tested MOL for the presence of alkaloids (Mayer\'s test), proteins and amino acids (xanthoproteic test and ninhydrin test), flavonoids (alkaline reagent test), glycosides (Legal\'s test), saponins (foam test), and tannin (gelatin test). The presence of reducing sugars, carbohydrates, phytosterols, and triterpenoids was tested by Fehling\'s test, Molisch\'s test, Liebermann–Burchard\'s test, and Salkowski\'s test, respectively. Standard chemical tests were used for testing steroids, anthraquinones, and fats and fixed oils. Results: Stronger presence of some chemical compounds like proteins and amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, and saponins as well as other ingredients were detected. The extract showed weak positivity for phytosterols, reducing sugars, and fats and fixed oils. But carbohydrates, anthraquinones, tannin, and triterpenoids were not identified in the extract of MOL. Conclusion: The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins can exhibit stronger antioxidant activity against the free radicals, which are of great medicinal value. The active components extracted from MOL may be useful as a drug in various diseases induced by the reactive oxygen species.

Original Article

Murugaboopathy Vikneshan, Ravindran Saravana Kumar, Mangaiyarkarasi Ravirajan, Mohandoss Suganya, Gengiah Kalavathy, Mohamed Muthaszeer

Antimicrobial Activity of Ulva lactuca, Green Algae, against Common Oral Pathogens

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:168 - 170]

Keywords: Anti-bacterial agents, Mouth, Seaweed

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02272  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Marine algae with their ability to synthesize bioactive secondary metabolites and excellent antimicrobial efficacy provide an alternative to chemical based antibiotics. Ulva lactuca, green algae with various phytochemicals and sulfated polysaccharides, possesses antimicrobial efficacy. This present study tested the antimicrobial activity of Ulva lactuca, green algae, against common oral pathogens. Materials and methods: Ulva lactuca was collected from the Gulf of Mannar, and 1% of Ulva lactuca extract was used for antimicrobial activity. The agar well-diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of different concentrations of Ulva lactuca aqueous extract against oral pathogens, such as Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Results: The mean zone of inhibition (ZOI) was found to be same, 8 mm in diameter, across all concentrations (25, 50, and 100 μL) of the extract. The extracts showed only moderate antimicrobial activity compared to that of control antibiotic used. Conclusion: The present study showed that aqueous extracts of Ulva lactuca had only moderate antimicrobial activity compared to the commercial antibiotics.

CASE REPORT

Natasha C Saldanha, Sivaprakash Balasundaram, Sunayana Choudhury, Sukanto Sarkar

Complex Neuropsychiatric Manifestations in Binswanger Disease: A Case Report

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:171 - 173]

Keywords: Binswanger disease, Cognition, Precognitive experiences, Psychosis, Vascular dementia

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-02271  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

“Binswanger disease” is a controversial eponym frequently used to indicate a form of vascular dementia characterized by white matter rarefaction and lacunar infarcts. Clinical features of Binswanger disease are variable, and the psychiatric manifestations have been less well described. We report a case of a 78-year-old female presenting with 3-month history of precognitive experiences, hallucinations in multiple modalities, inappropriate behavior, insomnia, and deterioration in self-care. Patient is a known case of hypertension and has a past history of multiple transient ischemic attacks. Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Frontal Assessment Battery showed significant dysfunction. Neuropsychiatric inventory confirmed presence of psychopathology. Salient findings on magnetic resonance imaging brain included cerebral atrophy, chronic white matter ischemic changes, and multiple lacunar infarcts. The patient was prescribed second-generation antipsychotic along with cholinesterase inhibitor, NMDA receptor antagonist, and an antihypertensive. The patient improved with regard to psychotic symptoms and insomnia and is attending regular follow-up.

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