SBV Journal of Basic, Clinical and Applied Health Science

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2022 | July-September | Volume 5 | Issue 3

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EDITORIAL

Subhash Chandra Parija, Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

Biodiversity and Human Health: Public Health Perspective

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:61 - 62]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-03165  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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REVIEW ARTICLE

Nikhil Ravooru, V Subramaniyan, Harshavardhan Balaganesan, Anila Punchiry, Archana Bala, Sai Shankar

Role of Imaging in Craniocerebral Trauma: A Narrative Review

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:63 - 65]

Keywords: Computed tomography, Craniocerebral trauma, Fracture, Hematoma, Magnetic resonance imaging

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-03158  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are common and cost heavily to both society and the individual. The diagnosis of TBI is a clinical decision; however, imaging, particularly CT, plays an important role in diagnostic work-up, classification, prognosis, and follow-up. The goal of this study was to contrast and compare the roles of different imaging modalities in craniocerebral trauma. Radiologists are critical in the detection of craniocerebral trauma, and they must look for injury patterns, methods of injury, and subsequent injuries such as herniation and mass effect. CT has a much greater sensitivity for fracture detection when compared to MRI and no risk for safety, which is vital in penetrating or blast injuries. MRI holds higher sensitivity in diagnosing intra- and extra-axial hemorrhages, white matter axonal injuries, and brainstem abnormalities.

106

REVIEW ARTICLE

Sumukh Mithunkul, V Subramaniyan, Sai Shankar, Jenikar Paul, Harshavardhan Balaganesan, Anila Punchiry

Correlation of Duplex Ultrasound and Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Nephropathy: A Narrative Review

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:66 - 68]

Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy, Doppler, Renal ultrasound

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-03160  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a chronic microvascular complication of diabetic mellitus. Progressive loss of kidney function can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Diabetic nephropathy can be detected and managed early, which can help to prevent or postpone the development of ESRD. Duplex ultrasound can be used to quantify renal characteristics such as length, echogenicity, parenchymal thickness, and resistive index (RI), which could help in the early diagnosis of DN. The purpose of this article was to study the correlation of duplex ultrasound findings and biochemical parameters in diabetic nephropathic patients. A progressive increase in the renal RI, derangement of renal sonomorphological parameters, and biochemical parameters were found with advancing DN. Similar studies have shown this relationship which can be used for early detection of DN which helps to reduce morbidity to great extent.

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CASE REPORT

S Dhanasekar, T Krishna Prasad, Sabarigirivasan Kumbasantharam

A Case of Myasthenia Gravis with Steroid-induced Bilateral Avascular Necrosis Neck of Femur Posted for Bilateral Core Decompression

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:69 - 72]

Keywords: Non-relaxant anesthesia, Perioperative steroid therapy, Postoperative myasthenic crisis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-03134  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Postoperative myasthenic crisis (POMC) is one of the leading causes of respiratory failure, requiring intubation or mechanical ventilation within 24 hours to 7 days following surgery in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients. Its incidence ranges from 11.5 to 18.2% in MG patients. A 32-year-old male, coming from Chengalpattu belonging to socioeconomic class III was a known case of MG for 1½ years, belongs to grade I of Osserman classification (ocular weakness without bulbar involvement) and was on oral prednisolone 30 mg/day and pyridostigmine 60 mg/day. The patient was diagnosed with a bilateral avascular necrosis neck of the femur, posted for core decompression. Various studies were aimed to develop and validate a simple clinical prediction score for POMC risk based on data from patients with MG. With this clinical prediction score, following certain anesthesia strategies will minimize its incidence and make their perioperative journey safe.

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CASE REPORT

Swathi Vellaichamy, Lalith Kumar, Gokul D Yatheendranathan, Naren KA Kumar, Balakumaran Arunagiri

Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion: A Case Report

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:73 - 75]

Keywords: Acute mesenteric ischemia, Bowel gangrene, Superior mesenteric artery thrombosis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-03146  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a dreaded surgical condition, that still remains a reason for concern despite advances in laboratory investigations and imaging modalities, because of its nonspecific clinical presentation. Case description: In this case report, we describe a 57-year-old gentleman who presented with acute abdomen and septic shock 24 hours following symptom onset. Emergency exploratory laparotomy was done and the patient was found to have extensive bowel gangrene of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) territory. Conclusion: Patients with abdominal pain out of proportion to clinical signs, vomiting, and diarrhea should arouse a clinical suspicion of mesenteric ischemia. Early diagnosis is the most imperative to the successful management of AMI.

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CASE REPORT

Balakumaran Arunagiri, Gokul D Yatheendranathan, KR Dinesh, A Naren Kumar, Swathi Vellaichamy

A Recuperated Limb, Post-necrotizing Fasciitis of Forearm

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:76 - 78]

Keywords: Amputation of forearm, Necrotizing fasciitis, Recuperated limb, Serial debridement

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-03152  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Traumatic injury and infections of the limb are one of the leading causes of amputation, which is more common in the lower limb than the upper limb, necrotizing fasciitis of the hand and upper arm is quite rare. Here we have discussed a 60-year-old male daily labor, who came to surgical OPD with an h/o thorn prick in the right hand and subsequently developed an ulcer and ascending cellulitis to the forearm, eventually necrotizing fasciitis of the right arm and was referred to our hospital for amputation. But with the unfeigned attempt at limb saving management and the patient's strong hope and will, he got his arm back and was able to do trivial works and personal care by himself with his recuperated limb.

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CASE REPORT

Soumya Singh

A Rare Case of Open-angle and Closed-angle Glaucoma Coexisting in the Same Patient

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:79 - 81]

Keywords: Angle-closure glaucoma, Glaucoma, Open-angle glaucoma, Pseudoexfoliation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-03153  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness and visual impairment. It is defined as a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by optic disk cupping and visual field loss; a major risk factor for progression is the increase in intraocular pressure. Open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma are classified on the basis of gonioscopy findings of the iridocorneal angle and anterior segment variation which can lead to an increase in intraocular pressure. The occurrence of both open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma in the same patient is a rare incidence, so careful examination is required to rule out all the patients having primary or secondary causes of glaucoma.

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SHORT COMMUNICATION

Shivashankari Pandirajan, Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

Self-reported Smartphone Addiction: Strategies to Counter the Same

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:82 - 83]

Keywords: Addiction, COVID-19, Smartphone

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-03149  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Smartphones have become an inseparable part of the life of today's kids. Smartphones have simplified our lives in a variety of ways. As a result of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the usage of smartphones has expanded significantly in a variety of professions, including medical education. While many institutions have recognized the potential and benefits of smartphone use, such as learning at one's own pace, bridging geographic distances, easy access to a variety of learning resources, hands-on demonstrations, and assessment, we must also be aware of the negative consequences of smartphone use, the most concerning of which is smartphone addiction. Increased smartphone or mobile phone usage has been linked to headaches, dizziness, memory and focus impairments, weariness, and sleep disorders.

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LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Smita S Chavhan, Prasad T Dhikale, Balkrishna Adsul

Importance of Ventilation in the COVID-19 Era

[Year:2022] [Month:July-September] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:84 - 85]

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, Ventilation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10082-03163  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Importance of ventilation in the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) era: The SARS-CoV-2 virus can be transmitted easily indoors than outdoors. In indoors, good ventilation decreases the concentration of virus particles in the air. Good ventilation can also reduce many other air-borne infections like tuberculosis and influenza. Challenges faced during the pandemic with regards to ventilation: The improvement of ventilation has not received adequate importance in Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) material for the public, nor in government measures. Recommendations to overcome the challenges: Ventilation in homes can be improved by opening doors and windows, proper placement of fans, and exhaust fans. At workplaces keep windows and doors slightly open while the ACs are running, add gable/exhaust fan in offices, etc. At centralized air management systems like auditoriums and shopping malls, roof ventilators and high-efficiency particulate air filters/regular filters are recommended. Hospitals and health centers must ensure that vaccinations are carried out in well-ventilated and directional airflow controlled areas wherever possible. Ventilation improvement has huge scope and along with other measures, it can reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Air-conditioned (AC) buses, metro trains, malls, and healthcare systems should improve their ventilation system. Improving ventilation should be focused on IEC and government measures with a practically feasible and holistic approach.

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